关于奈良国立博物馆

致辞

The Nara National Museum is located in a corner of Nara Park surrounded by the Tōdai-ji Temple, the Kōfuku-ji Temple, and the Kasuga Taisha Shrine. With the cooperation of temples, shrines, and other cultural properties’ owners, we conserve and study cultural properties, including artworks and archeological artifacts related to Buddhist art. We also hold exhibitions to encourage the understanding of the quality of and fascination with Buddhist art cultivated through deep faith in Buddhism, as well as the profound culture and historical background of Buddhist art.
Through this website, we hope to provide a variety of information about the museum. We also hope that this website provides an opportunity for visitors to express their interest in our activities and cultural properties. If you are interested, you are welcome to visit the museum and directly experience the quality and beauty of our cultural properties. You can always access up-to-date information on exhibitions and other events through this website. It may be helpful to check the latest information before you visit the museum.

Inoue Yōichi
Director, Nara National Museum

奈良国立博物馆的历程

  日本最初建立博物馆是以1867年在法国巴黎举办的万国博览会为契机的,1871年日本文部省内设立了博物局,将汤岛圣堂大成殿作为会场举办的博览会是迈出的第一步。1874年官民联合在奈良成立了奈良博览会社,次年以东大寺大佛殿回廊为会场,陈列了以正仓院宝物为首的珍贵宝物。此博览会一直举办到1890年,通过博览会人们认识到,明治维新前后由于神佛分离政策等而丢失散逸的许多宝物都是重要的文化遗产。
  尤其是奈良很大程度的受到了当时神佛分离政策等带来的政治影响,但在后来对文物保护高度重视的氛围里,日本政府于1888年建立了宫内省的“临时全国宝物调查局”,实施全国的文物调查。1886年博物馆领域也归属宫内省管辖。此后,1889年决定成立帝国博物馆(东京)、帝国京都博物馆和帝国奈良博物馆。1895年4月,帝国奈良博物馆正式开馆。于1900年随着宫内省官制的改革,帝国博物馆改名为帝室博物馆,本馆也成为了奈良帝室博物馆。
  在奈良成立国立博物馆的宗旨是为了保管和公开流传在神社寺院的诸多“名器与珍宝”,让世人知道其价值,并协助保护这些珍宝。进入昭和时代(1926-1989)后,由于来自各神社寺院的寄存文物逐渐增加,当时的陈列馆(现奈良佛像馆)内的收藏库明显狭小,因此于1937年专门建设了收藏库。
  当时举办的展览中除了常设展以外,还有特定主题的特别展(现为春季特别展)、“天平文化纪念品特别展”(1928)、“以佛师运庆(?-1223)为中心的镰仓雕刻展”(1933)、“绘卷与佛画特别展”(1936)、“藤原美术展”(1938)、“平家纳经展”(1940)等一些值得关注的展览。另外,1932年博物馆还举办了“正仓院御物古裂展”,这是奈良帝室博物馆持续开展的正仓院古裂修复成果的展览。(“古裂”是指具有文物价值的旧织物残片。)
  1946年2月,博物馆举办了二战结束后的首次特别展“京都御所宝物展”。同年10月举办了“第一届正仓院展”,在当时交通恶劣和食品短缺的情形下,竟然在仅22天的展期之内迎来了大约15万客人。次年1947年5月,奈良帝室博物馆归属文部省管辖,改名为国立博物馆奈良分馆。1950年制定了文物保护法,并在文部省的外局(中央直属部门)新设了文物保护委员会,本馆也成为了其附属机构。之后,本馆在1952年7月从东京国立博物馆的分馆独立,成为现在的奈良国立博物馆。
  明治时代(1868-1912)以来,文物一般寄存或保管于博物馆。但到了昭和30年代(1955-1964)以后,日本文物的保管情况发生了变化。国家开始支持并援助各社寺,建立其自身的收藏库并对文物就地保管。因此各寺院相继向博物馆申请返还寄存文物。在此背景下,本馆从以往的名品展览,转变为对佛像、佛画、佛教工艺品等进行系统性的展览,作为佛教美术鉴赏和研究的资料。这一展示方针延续至今。另外,春季特别展也从昭和30年代开始,陆续尝试了“垂迹”美术、绣佛、密宗法具、外来美术、经冢遗宝、佛像内藏品、平安(794-1185)与镰仓时代(1185-1333)的铜佛等新主题。1968年6月日本文化厅成立,同时文物保护委员会废止,本馆也就成为了文化厅的下设机构。1972年3月,陈列馆新馆竣工(现在的西新馆)。  本馆的平常展(藏品展)主要是以佛教美术的研究为基础而开展的,以前是以释迦、大乘佛教、净土教、密宗、禅宗、垂迹等不同信仰背景为主体进行分类而展示的。之后,随着佛教美术研究的进一步展开,本馆的奈良佛像馆和西新馆举办了一系列不同主题的展览。
  1997年本馆又增建了东新馆,展览方针发生了巨大的改变。目前,佛像馆作为全馆的“雕刻馆”,按尊像的种类和制作技法等分类,主要展示日本佛教雕刻的名品。此外,在个别展厅展出来自中国以及朝鲜半岛的佛像作品。西新馆通常是考古、绘画、书迹(墨迹)、工艺等不同门类展品的平常展(藏品展),偶尔也会作为特别展展厅使用。东新馆则主要用于举办春季特别展和秋季的正仓院展,同时各种小型专题展览(特别陈列)也会在这里举行。
  为了保存文物将其留传于后代,对文物进行定期修复是不可或缺的。本馆对漆工品的修复,过去是在馆内工房,聘请外部技术人员对其进行修复。近年来又设置了常年欠缺的雕刻、绘画、书迹(墨迹)类作品的专门修复设施。该设施于2000年竣工,2002年作为“文物保存修复中心”开放。此后,该修复中心接收修复了以国宝、重要文化财产为首,地方公共团体认定品等大量重要文物的修理工作,同时在与修理相关的学术研究活动方面也取得了切实的成果。

Chronology

Meiji 22(1889)Established as the Imperial Museum of Nara.
Meiji 28(1895)Opened to the public.
Meiji 33(1900)Renamed the Imperial Household Museum of Nara.
Taishō 3(1914)The Shōsōin department was established.
Shōwa 22(1947)Transferred from the authority of the Imperial Household Ministry to the Ministry of Education.
Shōwa 25(1950)The museum became an institution affiliated with the Committee for the Preservation of Cultural Properties.
Shōwa 27(1952)Renamed as the Nara National Museum.
Shōwa 43(1968)Affiliated with the Agency for Cultural Affairs.
Shōwa 47(1972)A new exhibition building (the West Wing) was completed.
Shōwa 55(1980)The Buddhist Art Library was opened.
Heisei 7(1995)A ceremony was held to celebrate the centennial of the museum’s opening.
Heisei 9(1997)The East Wing and the underground passage were completed. (The East Wing was opened in 1998.)
Heisei 13(2001)The museum became the Nara National Museum of the Independent Administrative Institution National Museum.
Heisei 14(2002)The Conservation Center for preserving cultural properties was completed.
Heisei 19(2007)The museum became the Nara National Museum of the Independent Administrative Institute National Institute for Cultural Heritage

Site & Buildings

Site area78,760m2
Building area19,133m2
Nara Buddhist Sculpture Hall1,512m2
Ritual Bronzes Gallery664m2
West Wing5,396m2
East Wing6,389m2
Buddhist Art Library735m2
Conservation Center1,036m2
Other3,401m2
Exhibition area4,079m2
Repository area1,806m2

Activities

Exhibitions

Exhibitions focus primarily on fine arts, decorative arts, and archeological artifacts related to Buddhism. The museum also holds the Spring and Autumn Exhibitions, special displays, featured exhibits, and the Gallery for Parents and Children. The exhibit from the Permanent Collection in the Nara Buddhist Sculpture Hall usually displays sculptures, and the exhibit from the Permanent Collection in the West Wing displays paintings, calligraphy, decorative arts, and archeological artifacts. Paintings and calligraphy works are rotated monthly; other objects are partially shuffled intermittently throughout the year. The Spring Special Exhibitions are held from late April to early June each year. The Autumn Special Exhibitions feature outstanding treasures from the Shōsōin Treasury. Special displays and featured exhibitions are relatively small exhibits, but they are available throughout the year. The Gallery for Parents and Children is an introductory exhibition for elementary or junior high school students. The museum often cosponsors an exhibition together with newspaper publications.

Lectures and Seminars

The museum offers lectures during the Special Exhibition, the Gallery for Parents and Children, and other special displays. The museum holds Sunday Talks by museum curators on the third Sunday of every month.

Buddhist Art Library

Buddhist Art Library was established in 1980 as an institution primarily engaged in the creation, collection, organization, and conservation of the materials necessary for the research of Buddhist art. Since May 1989, it has also made these books, copies of books, rubbings, photographs, and other such materials available to the general public.